As the end of the semester approaches, bringing due dates for papers and projects, Penrose Library staff want to help you find and access sources that you need for your research. Please be aware of some general policies and specific end-of-semester deadlines for students.
Books, DVDs, microfilm, and other tangible media (see below for articles)
Interlibrary loan (ILL) for print books and media materials can take a while, especially if items are coming from far away. The Access Services Department stopped requesting out-of-country and non-regional US loan items for students as of last week due to the time constraints for shipping. They will continue to place requests for ILL items within the Pacific Northwest/California and Montana until December 7. If you have any rush requests, please let Jen Pope know immediately. (These ILL ordering deadlines do not apply to faculty and staff.)
For Summit items (print books and media materials), allow at least five business days for delivery, as usual. You may request Summit materials during finals week, but they are very unlikely to arrive before the end of the semester. Materials that arrive after the end of the semester will be held at the Circulation Desk for seven days; if they have not been picked up before the Library closes for break, they will be sent back to their home institution before the beginning of the Spring semester. You may re-order such materials in mid-January.
Articles via ILL
Orders for articles via ILL are placed when the library is open, regardless of the time of year. Usually the turnaround time for an article via ILL is within 48 hours, although it can take longer, depending on the journal and the providing library. Once they have arrived, electronic ILL articles remain available in your ILL account for 21 days. After that point, the articles are removed from your account and must be requested again, so it is a good idea to download your article as soon as you receive notification that it has arrived. Do be sure to leave yourself a cushion of a couple of days when requesting ILL articles!
Returning materials at the end of the semester
You can check on due dates for your Penrose, Summit, and ILL materials in your Sherlock account. Before you leave campus, please return items that are due while you will be away! Seniors who have completed a thesis in the fall, please return all materials and your locker key! Seniors who are continuing work on a thesis in the spring semester should direct any questions about due dates for materials to the Circulation Desk.
Winter Break Library Hours
Penrose Library will close at 5 pm on Friday, December 16. It will be on a 9 am to 5 pm schedule December 17-22, and will be closed December 23-January 2. It will reopen at 9 am on Tuesday, January 3. Library staff will not be in to process any borrowing requests during that break.
Do you want to learn how to navigate the Library’s resources with ease and find the best sources for your papers and assignments? Are you interested in learning how a scrapbook, a map, or a lock of hair can become a primary source for your research? Take a library class this spring!
Library 100 will introduce you to the resources and services of Penrose Library, and help you feel comfortable and confident doing research. We’ll focus on developing information literacy skills, helping you find, evaluate, and effectively use sources. It will be offered Thursday from 2:30 to 3:30 on a credit/no credit basis and is a one-credit class. Please contact Amy Blau (509-527-4905) with questions.
Library 300 focuses on the structure and politics of archival collections, the interrogation of a wide variety of primary sources, and the development of cross-disciplinary research questions, based on the holdings of the Whitman College and Northwest Archives. It will be offered on Tuesdays from 2:30 – 3:30 on a credit/no credit basis and is a one-credit class. Please contact Melissa Salrin (509-526-4731) with questions.
Post by Lee Keene
Games are an important part of cultural heritage, and have served in that role for millennia. Indeed, they are as important as literature, art, and music, but rarely do we think of them as raw material for study and analysis.
We are in the midst of a golden age of board games. Sales of titles such as Settlers of Catan, Ticket to Ride, Pandemic, and Twilight Struggle are at an all- time high. They serve as an alternative to online gaming especially in the way they enable face-to-face interactions among players.
But more interesting is the way that traditional games like Monopoly and Candy Land tell stories not just through their game play, but suggest greater cultural trends. They represent and reflect the time and cultural context they were created in and provide common cultural references.
Professor of Anthropology and Environmental Studies, Eunice Blavascunas tells us: “There is both a spontaneity and unexpectedness with face to face board game play. Students use an iterative process during playtime. Also because games have a built in element of trying and wanting to win, there is more attentiveness and focus used when playing board games. In this labile state of mind students make new neural connections.”
Tabletop games have the potential to tell subtle narratives about gender (why have the human characters in Candy Land become “sexed-up”?), economics and income-inequality (we all learn our first lessons about money via Monopoly, how do those lessons shape our ideas about capitalism?), and political realities (why create a game, Kolejka, that reproduces the experience of waiting in line in a controlled economy in 1980’s Poland?).
To some extent, we form our impressions of historical realities and the world around us through the games we play during youth. I suggest that the Cold War, for our current students, is an unknown construct. Could they learn about the U.S. versus USSR via the game “Twilight Struggle”, and how accurate are those historical conditions as presented on the game board?
These games are available to check-out at Penrose library. Gather a group and enjoy a face-to-face (technology-free) evening. International Games Day is on November 19!
On October 11, the Fivethirtyeight blog predicted starkly different outcomes of the 2016 US presidential election if only men voted versus if only women voted. This sparked many reactions, including the trending of the hashtag #repealthe19th on Twitter. It’s worth noting, though, that in fact some women in the United States had the right to vote before the 19th amendment to the Constitution became federal law on August 26, 1920. The presidential election of 1916 is an interesting case for the analysis of gender in voting trends. A 1916 article in the Ladies’ Home Journal presented the potential significance of the women’s vote:
“Four million women will have the privilege to vote for a President of the United States this year… These four million women represent twelve states, which cast ninety-one ballots in the electoral college which elects the President. As a President must receive two hundred and sixty-six electoral-college votes necessary to a choice, the twelve equal-suffrage states represent little more than one-third of the total necessary to a choice. At the last Presidential election, in 1912, just one-half, six, of the present total of states gave the privilege to women to vote, and those states cast only thirty-seven electoral votes… Some revealing results will come from women’s votes this year, and they will tell much as to how large a part of the women in the states where they can vote really care about it to the extent of actually voting.” 
The states where women could vote in 1916 were mostly in the West: Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Illinois (only in the presidential race, not for congressional races), Kansas, Montana, Nevada, Utah, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming. As the Ladies’ Home Journal quotation indicates, there was very strong interest nationwide in women’s votes. The sitting president Woodrow Wilson had opposed granting women suffrage on the federal level, although he had voiced support for it on a state-by-state basis in 1915 and 1916 and had ensured that the national Democratic platform endorsed woman suffrage.  His opponent, Republican candidate Charles Evans Hughes, endorsed a national amendment for suffrage.
In the run-up to the 1916 election, a group of suffragists led by Alice Paul organized the National Woman’s Party, whose members would be enfranchised women, and whose goal was to promote a national amendment on suffrage.  In the spring of 1916, the campaign train (dubbed the “Suffrage Special,” the “Petticoat Special,” or the “Golden Special” for the wealth of the women who were working there) brought suffragists West to campaign for their issue. Supposedly the National Woman’s Party was independent, but the participation of many of its founders in earlier protests against the Democratic party for its dismissal of a federal amendment in favor of woman’s suffrage in 1914 meant that its goals were associated with Hughes and the Republican party.Of the twelve suffrage states, only two went to Hughes (Illinois and Oregon), and women’s votes were viewed to have helped in Wilson’s victory in Kansas, and in other states including California. The 1916 election also saw the election of the first woman to Congress, Republican Jeannette Rankin, who represented Montana from 1917 to 1919. For those who like to play with statistics, there is an interactive map of the 1916 presidential results.
The outcomes of women’s votes in the 1916 presidential election were seen as surprising:
“On July 15, say, it would have been hard indeed to find a political prognosticator who would have believed the women’s votes would win for Wilson. It seems they did. Wilson was against the Anthony amendment; Hughes was for it; and the great organized women’s forces were determined to show their power by punishing Wilson. Instead, their women voters supported him.
There is basis for a mild suspicion that the ladies who run the suffrage movement from a New York headquarters have not quite grasped the idea that is lodged in the pretty heads of the ladies over on the other side of the country who actually have a vote, and are using it to suit themselves.” 
We’ll close with a 1916 post-election day editorial from the Tacoma Times.
Women are contrary.
They’re so contrary, darn ’em, that if a candidate’s supporters tell stories against the other fellow and the stories turn out to be lies, they’re as likely as not to vote against the candidate whose supporters told the stories.
And unjust criticism is likely to swing their sympathies–and their votes–to the person criticised.
And if you try arguments–like that one about “democrats and Hard Times,” “Republicans and Prosperity,”–they go off by themselves and think and talk it over until they see through it and come back at you with “How about the hard times in Roosevelt’s administration?”
And if you try stampede methods, like sending a Golden Special all through the west to tell ‘em how to vote, they stampede in the other direction.
This thing of women’s voting is fierce! If it keeps up, it isn’t going to be possible to tell anything about a candidate but the truth; or criticise him except when he deserves it; or use money when your arguments give out; or do the voters’ thinking for them; or anything!
And what’ll become of the professional politicians and dust-throwers and mud-slingers then, eh?
They’ll be out of jobs, that’s what! And the country’ll have to get along without ’em; and serve it right, for letting women vote! 
 “How Many of the Four Million Will Vote?” Ladies Home Journal 33, no.4 (1916): 12, ProQuest Women’s Magazine Archive.
 Kendrick A. Clements and Eric A. Cheezum, Woodrow Wilson (Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2003), 119.
 Christine A. Lunardini, From Equal Suffrage to Equal Rights: Alice Paul and the National Woman’s Party, 1910-1928 (New York and London: New York University Press, 1986), 88.
 “Surprises in the voting,” Washington times (Washington [D.C.]), 10 Nov. 1916: 8, Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers, http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84026749/1916-11-10/ed-1/seq-8/.
 “Ornery Women,” editorial, Tacoma times (Tacoma, WA.), 10 Nov. 1916: 4, Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers, http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn88085187/1916-11-10/ed-1/seq-4/.
Looking back 100 years or so, how did Americans celebrate Halloween? Trick-or-treating was not established, although pranks certainly were; decorating with jack-o-lanterns was popular, and costumes were much in demand. Both children and adults tended to celebrate with parties or masquerades.
One set of customs seems to have died out: communicating with the spirits in order to see the future, most commonly expressed as who you would marry. There were any number of “charms” that were used to indicate compatibility; some were mentioned in a poem by Robert Burns. For instance, two nuts would each be assigned a name. They could thrown in the fire, and their placement as they burned would indicate if the couple would remain together or part.
Another set of charms were related to mirrors at midnight; if a young woman looked into a mirror at that hour under the right circumstances, she would see her future husband’s face reflected.
“In a thousand boarding schools a thousand girls will creep down the cellar stairs holding a mirror and a candle as the hour strikes 12, looking fearfully for the reflected face which is to tell them of the future; and in more than a thousand apartment houses–where there are no cellar stairs–young women will eat an apple before a mirror and hold a candle by whose light they expect to see that same prophetic vision” — The San Francisco call. (San Francisco [Calif.]), 31 Oct. 1909. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
Explore magazines and newspapers through our Primary Sources LibGuide for more historical Halloween fun. Happy Halloween!
[Some of the links will require a login with your Whitman ID.]
Post by Ben Murphy
Librarians and student workers have been busy moving some collections of digitized images to ARMINDA, our institutional repository. We’ve just finished our first large chunk of this project, the Walla Walla Photographs Collection. We’ll be sharing a few highlights from this collection over the coming weeks.
The title of this photograph, part of the new collection in ARMINDA, raised the question: “What’s a Play-o-graph”? As it turns out, this was a timely question. Several of us at Penrose are invested in the current World Series matchup between the Chicago Cubs and Cleveland Indians. The Playograph was how Walla Wallans “watched” the World Series in the early twentieth century. In the photo, a group of local residents are congregated on Alder St., between 1st and 2nd. Not visible in this particular photo is the object of their attention. The Playograph, according the the Walla Walla Bulletin in 1926, was a device that “gives every conceivable play that can be made on a baseball diamond and shows each play graphically on the 15 by 12 foot board.” Several operators would receive updates on the game by telegraph, then move pieces of the board corresponding to the ball and players to graphically represent all the game action. Here’s a closeup that the Bulletin printed in 1926.
Playographs drew large crowds across the United States, especially during the World Series. This image from the Library of Congress shows a crowd watching the 1911 World Series in New York. Here’s another crowd in Muncie, Indiana in 1923. A blogger for Connecticuthistory.org has noted that Playographs lost popularity as radio broadcasts emerged in the 1920s. However, it seems that communities away from major metropolitan areas, like Walla Walla and Muncie, relied on their Playographs through the early 1930s. The Bulletin, the owner of the local Playograph, invited “every baseball fan from Pomeroy to Pendleton and from Kennewick to Toll Gate” to join in the viewing, which was free and open to the public.
In American History Illustrated in 1991, baseball writer Norman Macht described how the Playograph was but one in a series of mechanical and electrical devices, many of which were patented, that attempted to recreate the live action for spectators. These fans would “stand for hours in the streets and parks of cities and towns across the country, in all kinds of weather, watching what we would regard as primitive ‘real-time’ re-creations of the events taking place up to hundreds or occasionally thousands of miles away.”
Before the 1915 World Series, a small advertisement in the Sporting Page of the New York Evening World invited New Yorkers to view the 1915 World Series on the “Famous Jackson Manikin Board.” Macht describes this device as “especially elaborate.” He continues:
“Somewhat resembling a huge pinball machine, this apparatus featured mechanical players realistically imitating real-life actions on a thirty-four-by-fifty-four-foot field that was complete with scoreboard and signs on the outfield fences. The miniature players moved out of dugouts to home plate, swung the bat (either left-handed or right-handed), ran, threw, ‘argued’ with the umpire, and even walked over to calm down a nervous pitcher.”
The Jackson Manikin Board never made it to Walla Walla. As Philip Bumb noted in the Atlantic, “for all its creative energy, the JMBI [Jackson Manikin Baseball Indicator] was too complicated and too resource intensive to be replicated widely.” While it was perhaps not the most technologically advanced viewing device, Walla Wallans still enjoyed “watching” their Playograph. Besides the baseball, the Bulletin reminded readers in its invitation from 1926: “there will be no ban on smoking and concessions will keep the fans filled with hot dogs and the customary drinks.”
For more photos of Walla Walla’s Playograph and excerpts from the Bulletin, see Joe Drazan’s Bygone Walla Walla blog.
Macht, Norman L. “‘Watching’ the World Series.” American History Illustrated. September/October 1991: 49-51.
In honor of Open Access week, we’re highlighting some open projects on campus. Faculty members in the Whitman College Mathematics and Computer Science Department are producing Open Educational Resources (OER): textbooks that are freely available online for use and for reuse, usually with a Creative Commons license that makes those terms clear. Professor David Guichard has written an open Calculus textbook in several versions; Associate Professor Albert Schueller made his Programming with Robots book available with an open license, and has contributed to Guichard’s Calculus book as well (as has Associate Professor Barry Balof).
Licensing is important for OER because it allows the materials to be adapted for later use. Both books use the CC BY-NC-SA license, which means that they can be adapted and incorporated into further educational materials with attribution, for non-commercial purposes, and that the resulting materials also need to be licensed in the same way. Parts of Guichard’s text were adapted with permission from notes by Neal Koblitz at the University of Washington, and also drew upon CC-licensed exercises in another Calculus text. Guichard’s text in turn has been used as the basis for other texts and for a MOOC (called MOOCulus) at Ohio State University.
Guichard’s Calculus textbook is available on several Open Textbook websites, and has been adopted at other institutions. Guichard hears from individual users with feedback (especially corrections of typos). He says, “My favorite is the sailor who wrote to tell me he was bored on board a navy ship and was using it to learn calculus, with a goal of going on to other subjects.” Guichard’s Calculus book is available as a PDF, as a bound book (through the service lulu.com, for a small fee of around $10), or online. His students have used all of these forms, although the web version may be the most popular — recently, students have even used it on their phones.
The Math Department has adopted open textbooks in a number of classes. Guichard and Schueller have assigned their textbooks in their own classes. In addition, Guichard has assigned an open textbook for Linear Algebra, and a new book that he wrote for Combinatorics and Graph Theory, which Barry Balof also has used for that course. Schueller uses open source or inexpensive texts whenever possible, including the Calculus sequence, Linear Algebra, and programming; for his Engineering Math class he is switching from a $200 book to a $10 book. If an open textbook doesn’t exist as such, professors may assign extensive notes that they have authored (a proto-textbook), which is free to students, although not necessarily made openly available online. This has been the case for the Introduction to Higher Mathematics class, for which various professors have adapted longstanding notes by Professor Pat Keef.
There are advantages to using open textbooks beyond the cost savings to students. Professors can modify explanations, examples, and problems to fit their exact teaching goals. Schueller sees one potential disadvantage of OERs — the fact that they are often more bare-bones than commercial textbooks and their ancillary workbooks, online exercises, and so forth — as a potential advantage as well: “I also believe, in the case of Guichard’s text and others, that less is more. Modern calc texts are thick with examples covering every possible permutation of a particular concept. Doing homework for students using these texts is largely an exercise of finding the example that most closely resembles the exercise they’re working on and adapting it. Most open texts are necessarily less “feature-rich.” Students are left to fill in gaps. Not sure if that’s best for all student populations, but for Whitman students that challenges them and that’s for the better.” Guichard finds that the lack of extra features for his textbook may be a disincentive to its adoption on a broad scale, but he is happy to use his textbook in his own classroom, and sees additional adoptions as a “gratifying bonus” rather than a defining motivation.
Is there anything about mathematics specifically that makes this discipline a hospitable home for OER? Schueller finds that the large number of students taking courses like introductory calculus and the relatively stable content make up one factor. Another is the DIY attitude of mathematicians to creating systems (often open-source systems) that work for their needs — such as the typesetting and document preparation systems TeX and LaTeX, which are designed to optimize the display of mathematical equations. Both Guichard and Schueller trace their interest in OER to their use of and appreciation for open source software; open textbooks seemed like a logical extension of that model. Schueller has been active in recruiting adopters of open math textbooks to review the textbooks in traditional mathematics journals, in the hope of raising awareness more broadly of the existence and the advantages of these resources. He also shares more general information about open educational resources (emphasis: mathematics) on his blog.
Both Guichard and Schueller would encourage faculty members to investigate options in OER and to make contributions to existing projects that could fit their needs. For those considering adopting an existing OER, Schueller recommends talking to a colleague who has used it in a class. He and a colleague recently published a best practices guide on writing an open text, which would be relevant for a range of disciplinary areas. [Ironically, the journal requires a subscription — sign in with your Whitman ID to read the article.] More information on OERs and on Open Access more generally is also available on our Open Access LibGuide. If you have questions, or want to let us know about your own Open Educational Resources or Open Access activities, please contact Amy Blau.
Hispanic Heritage Month (September 15-October 15) recognizes and celebrates the societal and cultural contributions of Hispanic people in the United States. Read more about it and explore links to many online exhibits and collections on the Library of Congress Hispanic Heritage Month webpage. Listen to diverse stories by Latinos in the US at Story Corps Historias, and read about experiences of Latino veterans at the VOCES oral history project.
Penrose Library has a number of resources to help you celebrate Hispanic Heritage Month and research topics related to Latinos and Latinas in the United States. Our general collection supports Whitman’s courses in Spanish, Latin American Studies, and courses across the curriculum related to Latinos/Latinas in the United States and to Latin America. Two subscription databases make finding scholarly sources in these fields easier: PRISMA (Publicaciones y Revistas Sociales y Humanísticas) and HAPI (Hispanic American Periodical Index). For a rich compilation of Spanish-language newspapers published in the United States from 1808 to 1980, see the Hispanic American Newspapers collection. (You will need your Whitman network ID and password to log in.)
Come to Penrose Library and browse our exhibit on the short stacks at the front of the library. It contains bilingual books from our juvenile collection, a selection of literary works by Latino and Latina authors, and scholarly research on a range of topics related to Hispanic communities in the United States. All books on display may be checked out.
The image below is from the Summerfest “Mexican Fiesta” Scrapbook (1968-1970), a holding in the Whitman College and Northwest Archives. This event celebrating Hispanic culture in Walla Walla began before the establishment of Hispanic Heritage Month.
Banned Books Week, an annual event sponsored by a coalition of libraries, publishers, booksellers, teachers, and journalists, emphasizes the importance of the freedom to express and share ideas. In 2016, it takes place from September 25 to October 1.
This year, the Penrose Library display for Banned Book Week focuses on one particular example of restricting access to information: the attempt by the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) in 2013 to remove Marjane Satrapi’s autobiographical graphic novel depicting her childhood in post-revolutionary Iran, Persepolis, from the school district’s curricula and school libraries.
On March 14, 2013, news broke in Chicago that teachers in Chicago Public Schools had been told to remove the book from classrooms and school libraries. There was immediate pushback from teachers, students, and librarians, as the book was taught in many classes, especially AP-level French, English Literature, and Comparative Government, and attempts to restrict student access to it were seen as particularly hypocritical given its own critical depiction of censorship and political oppression in Iran. The CPS walked back from their broad removal efforts almost immediately, claiming that only use of the book in 7th grade curriculum or classrooms was to be restricted. The reason for the initial action and the extent to which higher-level CPS officials were involved was unknown, and the CPS spokesperson cast the ban attempt as a misunderstanding. A Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request filed at the time by the Freedom to Read Foundation was fulfilled only with previously published and circulated materials.
However, when University of Illinois graduate student in Library Science Jarrett Dapier filed a FOIA request in 2014 for materials pertaining to the Persepolis ban, he was sent an entire email exchange, which showed that there had indeed been an attempt to remove the book from all Chicago Public School classrooms and libraries, and an attempt to find and punish those responsible for its inclusion in Recommended Reading lists, together with a search for further “inappropriate” materials. The complete email chain that Dapier received is available here. The American Library Association’s Intellectual Freedom Blog has a succinct overview of the controversy with links to other sources. Coverage in the Lane Tech High School newspaper (page 3) includes the text of an email sent by Satrapi to the student journalist who alerted her to the attempted ban — Lane Tech students and teachers were instrumental in initially publicizing the ban. An interview with Jarrett Dapier by the Comic Book Legal Defense Fund contextualizes Dapier’s research and the events of the attempted ban.
Our exhibit, designed by UW Information School student and Penrose Library Circulation Supervisor Ellen Brigham, features selected articles about the ban attempt and information from the successful FOIA request. Additionally, we have information on display about recent book challenges, in particular to books with diverse content. You can check out challenged books to read yourself, as well as books from our collection on censorship, intellectual freedom, and the 1st Amendment, which are also on electronic display.
Arrrrr! September 19th is Talk Like A Pirate Day. The holiday, invented by John “Ol’ Chumbucket” Baur and Mark “Cap’n Slappy” Summers, was popularized in a 2002 column by Dave Barry. Talking like a pirate for the purposes of the holiday tends to mean using a lot of “pretend pirate,” Treasure Island-inspired vocabulary (think “shiver me timbers!” and “avast, me hearties!”). Historically, however, “talking like a pirate” tended to refer to using profane or coarse language, as a number of historic newspaper articles show.
In an instance from 1882, the incongruity of a woman talking like a pirate accompanied other crossings of traditional gender expectations. A short article titled “Cops in Crinoline” presents one Sadie McBride, who delivered several drunks to the Omaha police department: “She is of medium height, and built like a female Hercules, and talks like a pirate king, her language being more forcible than chaste or elegant.” The article concludes, “Here is a woman, now, who might lay some claim to woman’s rights, as she could fight as well as vote for her rights. Her laudable ambition should be encouraged by Mayor Boyd by appointing her to the first vacancy on the force.”
A rhyme from 1908 presents the pirate’s vocabulary as a way for more generally decorous men to express their anger:
Mild mannered men like pirates talk
When raw decisions make them squirm
They holler “Kill the umpire” though
In truth they wouldn’t hurt a worm
Finally, we see the story of a parrot used in a play unleashing curses on unsuspecting chorus girls, in an article from 1907 with the subtitle ”Quiet Bird, Which None Thought Could Talk, Cusses Like a Pirate when Irritated, and Chorus is Panic-Stricken.” As the chorus girls were waiting in the wings for a final entrance, the parrot was awakened by a disturbance backstage and made its presence known with a “torrent of profanity.” The chorus girls fled, believing that they had heard a ghost. However, the story ended happily with a stagehand silencing the parrot by covering its cage with a cloth, and the chorus performing its finale.